English as a world language in the long 18th century

A preliminary bibliography compiled by Anne Coyle, 1999

Site updated by Carol Percy, Dept of English, U of Toronto

||Journals|| ||General surveys|| ||Pidgins and Creoles|| ||Slave Narratives|| ||Africa||

||Australia & New Zealand|| ||Canada|| ||India|| ||Ireland|| ||Scotland|| ||South Africa|| ||United States||


Amsterdam Creole Studies.

Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages.

English World-Wide.

English Today.

Varieties of English Around the World.


Bailey, Richard. Images of English: A Cultural History of the Language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991.

Chapters 3-5 ("English abroad", "World English", "English transplanted") are especially relevant.

Bolton, Kingsley R. "World Englishes -- the Way We Were." World Englishes 18, no. 3 (1999): 393-413.

The Cambridge History of the English Language. English in Britain and Overseas. Origins and Development. Cambridge History of the English Language, ed. Robert Burchfield, no. 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Chapters on English in Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, the Caribbean, South Africa, South Asia. Tends to focus on 19th century onward, but does refer to the 18th century.

The Celtic Englishes. Edited by Hildegard Tristram. Heidelberg: Universitatsverlag C. Winter, 1997.

Contact Languages: A Wider Perspective. Edited by Sarah Thomason. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1997.

not verified

Dening, Greg. Mr Bligh's Bad Language: Passion, Power and Theatre on the Bounty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

English: History, Diversity and Change. Edited by David Graddol, Dick Leith and Joan Swann. London & New York: Routledge, 1996.

Ch.5, "English: colonial to postcolonial", looks at the spread of English within and beyond the British Isles.

English As a World Language. Edited by Richard Bailey and Manfred Görlach. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1982.

Histories of the English language in Scotland, Ireland, Canada, the Caribbean, W. Africa, E. Africa, S. Africa, South Asia, Australia, New Zealand.

English in Contact with Other Languages. Edited by Wolfgang Viereck and Dietrich Wolf-bald. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1986.

Expansive study of English in contact with languages from continental Europe, Asia, and Africa. Most essays include a history of these.

Englishes Around the World: Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach. Edited by Edgar Schneider. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins, 1997.

Görlach, Manfred. More Englishes: New Studies in Varieties of English 1988-1994. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1995.

Görlach, Manfred. Even More Englishes: Studies 1996-1997. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1998.

A collection of Görlach's essays which includes "The origins and development of emigrant Englishes", a useful historical overview of language contact.

________. Studies in the History of the English Language. Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1990.

Görlach, Manfred. "Language and Nation: The Concept of Linguistic Identity in the History of English." English World-Wide 18, no. 1 (1997): 1-34.

Grillo, Ralph D. Dominant Languages: Language and Hierarchy in Britain and France. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1989.

Hudson, Nicholas. "From `Nation' to `Race': The Origin of Racial Classification in Eighteenth-Century Thought." Eighteenth-Century Studies 29, no. 3 (1996): 247-64.

Language Contact Across the North Atlantic: Proceedings of the Working Groups Held At University Collge, Galway (Ireland), Aug.29- Sept. 3, 1992 and the University of Goteborg (Sweden), Aug. 16-21, 1993. Edited by P. Sture Ureland and Iain Clar kson. Tubingen: M. Niemeyer, 1996.

Pre- and post-Colombian language contact. Essays on Norwegian-American English, English dialects in America, Scots-Gaelic-American English.

Language in the British Isles. Edited by Peter Trudgill. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Leith, Dick. A Social History of English. London; Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983.

McArthur, Tom. The English Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Chapters on Scottish English, creoles, English as an international language, "Ebonics".

McCrum, Robert, William Cran and Robert MacNeil. The Story of English. Kingsport Press Inc: Kingsport, TN, 1987.

Miner, Earl. Naming Properties: Nominal Reference in Travel Writings by Basho and Sora, Johnson and Boswell. Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1996.

not verified

Pennycook, Alastair. The Cultural Politics of English As an International Language. London & New York: Longman, 1994.

Ch. 3 discusses "English and colonialism", otherwise, this is mostly to do with modern-day policies. Focus on India (of interest, East-India company) and Malaya.

________. English and the Discourses of Colonialism. London & New York: Routledge, 1998.

An excellent cultural study of the English language.

Schreyer, Rudiger. "Linguistics Meets Caliban; Or, the Uses of Savagery in 18th Century Theoretical History of Language." In Papers in the history of linguistics, eds. Hans Aarsleff, Louis Kelly and Hans Josef Niederehe. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 19 87.

Serjeantson, Mary. A History of Foreign Words in English. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1935.

Sklar, Elizabeth. "So Male a Speech: Linguistic Adequacy in Eighteenth-Century England." American Speech 64, no. 4 (1989): 372-9.

Stephens, W.B. "Literacy in England, Scotland, and Wales, 1500-1900." History of Education Quarterly 30, no. 4 (1990): 545-71.

Trudgill, Peter and Jean Hannah. International English. A Guide to Varieties of Standard English. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Edward Arnold, 1985.

Weinbrot, Howard D. Britannia's Issue. The Rise of British Literature From Dryden to Ossian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.



Pidgins and creoles

||link to Pidgins and Creoles (Rebecca Moore Howard's bibliography)||

Arends, Jacques, Pieter Muysken and Norval Smith. Pidgins and Creoles: An Introduction. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins, 1995.

Excellent overview of topic with historical background. Includes useful annotated list of creoles, pidgins, and mixed languages.

Barbag, Anna Stoll. Social and Linguistic History of Nigerian Pidgin English. Tübingen: Stauffenberg-Verlag, 1983.

Bruyn, Adrienne. "Question Words in 18th-Century and 20th-Century Sranan." In Historical linguistics 1991: Papers from the 10th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Amsterdam, 12-16 August 1991, ed. Jaap Van Marle. Amsterdam and A tlanta: Benjamins, 1993.

Burrowes, Audrey. "Barbadian Creole: Its Social History and Structure." In Studies in Caribbean language, ed. Lawrence Carrington. St Augustine, Trinidad: Society for Caribbean linguistics, 1983.

Day, Richard. "Early Pidginization in Hawaii." In Pidgin and creole languages, ed. Glenn Gilbert. Honolulu: U of Hawaii Press, 1987.

The Early Stages of Creolization. Edited by Jacques Arends. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1995.

A linguistics study. Essays on 18th century Sranan, Bajan.

Early Suriname Creole Texts: A Collection of 18th Century Sranan and Saramaccan Documents. Edited by Jacques Arends and Matthias Perl. Frankfurt, Madrid: Vervuert, Iberoamericana, 1995.

Elugbe, B. and A. Omamor. Nigerian Pidgin: Background and Prospects. Ibadan: Heinemann, 1991.

Comprehensive historical survey of Nigerian pidgin.

Fayer, Joan. "Nigerian Pidgin English in Old Calabar in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries." In Pidgin and creole tense-mood-aspect systems. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1990.

Gilman, Charles. "The Origin of Cameroonian Pidgin Dialects." Anthropological Linguistics 22, no. 9 (19980): 363-72.

Hancock, Ian. "Gullah and Barbadian - Origins and Relationships." American Speech 25 (1980): 17-35.

Montgomery, Michael. The Crucible of Carolina: Essays in the Development of Gullah Language and Culture. Athens and London: U of Georgia Press, 1994.

Detailed survey of Gullah, an English-based creole spoken by former black slaves and their descendants on the Sea islands of South Carolina, Georgia, and nearby mainland.

Rens, L. The Historical and Social Background of Surinam Negro-English. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1953.

Rickford, J.R. "The Creole Origins of African-American Vernacular English. Evidence From Copula Absence." In African-American English: structure, history, and use, eds. S. Mufwene, J.R. Rickford, G. Bailey and J. Baugh, 154-200. London: Routledg e, 1998.

________. "Prior Creolization of African-American Vernacular English? Sociohistorical and Textual Evidence From the 17th and 18th Centuries." Journal of Sociolinguistics 1, no. 3 (1997).

________. Dimensions of a Creole Continuum: History, Texts, and Linguistic Analysis of Guyanese Creole. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1987.

Rickford, John and Jerome Handler. "Textual Evidence on the Nature of Early Barbadian Speech, 1676-1835." Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 9 (1994): 221-55.

Romaine, Suzanne. Pidgin and Creole Languages. London & New York: Longman, 1988.

Overview of topic. Brief section on "nautical jargon".

Winer, Lise. "Early Trinidadian Creole: The Spectator Texts." English World-Wide 5 (1984): 181-210.

Winford, D. "On the Origins of African-American Vernacular English -- a Creolist Perspective, Part II: Linguistic Features." Diachronica 15, no. 1 (1998): 99-154.

________. "On the Origins of African American Vernacular English - a Creolist Perspective. Part I: The Sociohistorical Background." Diachronica 14, no. 2 (1997): 305-44.


Slave narratives

Acholonu, Catherine Obianuju. "The Home of Olaudah Equiano: A Linguistic and Anthropological Search." The Journal of Commonwealth Literature 22 (1987): 5-16.

________. The Igbo Roots of Olaudah Equiano. Owerri, Nigeria: AFA, 1989.

Fichtelberg, Joseph. "Word Between Worlds: The Economy of Equiano's Narrative." American Literary History 5 (1993): 459-80.

Hinds, Elizabeth Wall. "The Spirit of Trade: Olaudah Equiano's Conversion, Legalism, and the Merchant's Life." African-American Review 32 (1998): 635-47.

Mottolese, William. ""Almost an Englishman": Olaudah Equiano and the Colonial Gift of Language." Buckness Review 41 (1998): 160-71.

Orban, Katalin. "Dominant and Submerged Discourses in the Life of Olaudah Equiano (Gustavus Vassa?)." African-American Review 27 (1993): 655-64.




McArthur, Tom. "English in the World, in Africa, and in South Africa." English Today 15, no. 1 (1999): 11-6.

Singler, J.V. "An African-American Linguistic Enclave: Tense and Aspect in Liberian Settler English." In Historical linguistics 1989. Papers from the 9th international conference on historical linguistics, eds. H. Aertsen and R. Jeffers, 457-65. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Benjamins, 1993.

________. "Copula Variation in Liberian Settler English and American Black English." In Verb phrase patterns in Black English and creole, eds. W.F. Edwards and D. Winford, 129-64. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1991.

________. "Plural Marking in Liberian Settler English." American Speech 64, no. 1 (1989).


Australia and New Zealand

Gunn, John. "Social Contexts in the History of Australian English." In English in its social contexts: essays in historical sociolinguistics, eds. Tim Machan and Charles Scott. New York: Oxford UP, 1992.

McKenzie, D.F. "The Sociology of a Text: Oral Culture, Literacy and Print in Early New Zealand." In The social history of language, eds. Peter Burke and Roy Porter. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987.

Ramson, W.S. Australian English: An Historical Study of the Vocabulary 1788-1898. Canberra: ANU Press, 1966.

Turner, G. The English Language in Australia and New Zealand. London: Longman, 1966.



Avis, Walter S. and A.M. Kinloch. Writings on Canadian English, 1792-1975: An Annotated Bibliography. Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, c1977

Baeyer, C.B. The Ancestry of Canadian English. Hull, Quebec: Public Service Commission of Canada, 1980.

Chambers, J. K. "'Lawless and Vulgar Innovations': Victorian Views of Canadian English." In Focus on Canada, ed. Sandra Clarke, 1-26. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1993.

Chambers, J.K., ed. Canadian English: Origins and Structures. Toronto, etc.: Methuen, 1975.

Chambers, J.K. "The Development of Canadian English." Moderna Sprak 91, no. 1 (1997): 3-15.

Ireland, Robert John. "Canadian Spelling: An Empirical and Historical Survey of Selected Words." Ph.D., York University, 1979.

Lougheed, W. C. Writings on Canadian English, 1976-1987: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography. Kingston: Strathy Lang. Unit, Queen's University, 1987.

Mackey, William F. "The Foundations." In Language in Canada, ed. John Edwards, 13-35. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

McConnell, Ruth Ethel. Our Own Voice: Canadian English and How It Came to Be. Toronto: Gage, 1978.

Morrison, Val, Bill Reimer and Frances M. Shaver. "English Speakers in the Eastern Townships of Quebec." English World-Wide 12, no. 1 (1991): 63-74.

Pigadas, George. "Class Formation and Language Maintenance in British Canada, 1880-1970." Ph.D, York University, 1990.

Saint Jacques, Bernard. "The Languages of Immigrants: Sociolinguistic Aspects of Immigration in Canada." In The languages of Canada, ed. J.K. Chambers, 207-25. Montréal: Didier, 1979.

Scargill, M.H. A Short History of Canadian English. Victoria BC: Sono Nis Press, 1977.

Seary, Edgar Ronald. "Place, Names, and Language Contact." The Canadian Journal of Linguistics/La Revue Canadienne De Linguistique 20, no. 1 (1975): 99-103.

Thomas, Erik R. "The Origin of Canadian Raising in Ontario." Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue Canadienne De Linguistique, Downsview, 36, no. 2 (1991): 147-70.



Kachru, Braj B. The Indianization of English. The English Language in India. Delhi: Oxford UP, 1983.



Adams, J. "A Preliminary Checklist of Works Containing Ulster Dialect, 1700-1900." Linen Hall Review 6 (1989): 10-2.

Ahlqvist, Anders. "Language Conflict and Language Planning in Ireland." In Language conflict and language planning, ed. Ernst Hakon Jahr, 7-20. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1993.

Bliss, Alan. Spoken English in Ireland, 1600-1740: Twenty-Seven Representative Texts Assembled & Analysed. Dublin: Dolmen, 1979.

Connolly, Linde. "Spoken English in Ulster in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries." Ulster Folklife 28 (1982): 33-9.

Croghan, Martin J. "Swift, Thomas Sheridan, Maria Edgeworth and the Evolution of Hiberno-English." Irish University Review 20 (1990): 19-34.

Downey, Charlotte. "Factors in the Growth of the English Language in 18th and 19th Century Ireland." In English traditional grammars: an international perspective, ed. Gerhard Leitner. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1991.

Hogan, Jeremiah. The English Language in Ireland. Dublin: McGrath, 1970.

A short history of the English language in Ireland.

O Baoill, Donall. "Language Contact in Ireland: The Irish Phonological Substratum in Irish-English." In Development and diversity: language variation across time and space, eds. Jerold Edmondson, Crawford Feagin and Peter Muhlhausler. Dallas: Su mmer Institute of Linguistics/U Texas at Arlington, 1990.

Not verified.

O Cuív, B. "Irish Language and Literature, 1691-1845." In New history of Ireland. Vol. 4, eds. T. Moody and W. Vaughan. Oxford: Clarendon, 1986.

Odlin, Terence. "A Demographic Perspective on the Shift From Irish to English." In The Germanic mosaic: cultural and linguistic diversity in society, ed. Carol Aisha Blackshire-Belay. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1994.

English language contact in Ireland, 1750-1850.

O Murchu, Mairtin. "Diglossia and Interlanguage Contact in Ireland." Language, Culture and Curriculum 1, no. 3 (1988): 243-9.

Salmon, Vivian. Language and Society in Early Modern England. Selected Essays 1981-1994. Edited by Konrad Koerner. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins, 1996.

Contains essays on English in C17th Ireland.

Tieken-Boon van Ostade. "Betsy Sheridan: Fettered by Grammatical Rules?" Leuvense Bijdragen 79 (1990): 79-90.

Tieken-Boon van Ostade, Ingrid. "Social Ambition Reflected in the Language of Betsy and Richard Brinsley Sheridan." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 92, no. 2 (1991): 237-46.





Aitken, A.J. "Scots and English in Scotland." In Language in the British Isles, ed. Peter Trudgill, 517-32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

________. "Scottish Speech: A Historical View, with Special Reference to the Standard English of Scotland." In Languages of Scotland, eds. A.J. Aitken and T. McArthur, 85-118. n.l.: W. & R. Chambers, 1979.

Beal, Joan. "The Jocks and the Geordies: Modified Standards in Eighteenth-Century Pronouncing Dictionaries." In English historical linguistics 1994, ed. Derek Britton. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1996.

Camic, Charles. Experience and Enlightenment: Socialization for Cultural Change in Eighteenth-Century Scotland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1983.

Dossena, Marina. "The Search for Linguistic Excellence in Late Eighteenth-Century Scotland." Textus: English Studies in Italy 10 (1997): 355-76.

Gaillet, Lynee Lewis. Scottish Rhetoric and Its Influences. Mahwah, NJ: Hermagoras Press, 1998.

Hewitt, David. "James Beattie and the Languages of Scotland." In Aberdeen and the Enlightenment. Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Aberdeen, eds. Jennifer J. Carter and Joan H. Pittock, 251-60. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University P ress, 1987.

Jones, Charles. A Language Suppressed: The Pronunciation of the Scots Language in the 18th Century. Edinburgh: John Donald, 1995.

Jones, Charles. "An Early 18th Century Scottish Spelling Book for Ladies." English Studies 78, no. 5 (1997): 430-50.

Languages of Scotland. Edited by Adam Aitken and Tom McArthur. Edinburgh: Chambers, 1979.

Macleod, Iseabail. "Eighteenth-Century Scots Food Teminology." In The nuttis schell: essays on the Scots language presented to A.J. Aitken, eds. Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod. Aberdeen: Aberdeen UP, 1987.

McClure, J. Derrick. "English in Scotland." In English in Britain and Overseas: Origins and Development, vol. 5, ed. Robert Burchfield, Cambridge History of the English Language.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. Variation and Change in Early Scottish Prose. Studies Based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, no. 65. Helsinki: Suimalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1993.

Pollner, C. and H. Rohlfing. "The Scottish Language From the 16th to the 18th Century: Elphinston's Works As a Mirror of Anglicisation." In Scottish language and literature, mediaeval and Renaissance, eds. D. Strauss and H.W. Drescher, 125-37. F rankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1986.

Rogers, Pat. "Boswell and the Scotticism." In New light on Boswell: critical and historical essays on the occasion of the bicentenary of the Life of Johnson, ed. Greg Clingham, 56-71. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Scots and Its Literature. Varieties of English Around the World, ed. Derrick McClure, no. 14. Philadelphia: Benjamins, 1995.

Simpson, Kenneth. The Protean Scot: The Crisis of Identity in Eighteenth-Century Scottish Literature. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1988.

Stephens, W.B. "Literacy in England, Scotland, and Wales, 1500-1900." History of Education Quarterly 30, no. 4 (1990): 545-71.

Windross, Michael. "Translation and the Scottish Enlightenment." In Perspectives on English. Studies in honour of Professor Emma Vorlat, eds. Keith Carlon, Kristin Davidse and Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn, 78-97. Leuven & Paris: Peeters, 1994.

Withers, Charles. "Education and Anglicisation: The Policy of the SSPCK Toward the Education of the Highlander, 1709-1825." Scottish Studies 26 (1982): 37-56.


South Africa

Juengling, Fritz. "Bibliography of English in South Africa." Language Matters 29 (1998): 179-255.

Lanham, L.W. "A History of English in South Africa." In Focus on South Africa, ed. Vivian De Klerk, 19-34. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1996.

McArthur, Tom. "English in the World, in Africa, and in South Africa." English Today 15, no. 1 (1999): 11-6.

Mesthrie, R. "Fifty Ways to Say "I Do": Tracing the Origins of Unstressed Do in Cape Flats English, South Africa." South African Journal of Linguistics 17, no. 1 (199): 58-71.

Mesthrie, Rajend. English in Language Shift: The History, Structure and Sociolinguistics of South African Indian English. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992.

________. "Imagint Excusations: Missionary English in the Nineteenth Century Cape Colony, South Africa." World Englishes 15, no. 2 (1996): 139-57.

Mesthrie, Rajent and Paula West. "Towards a Grammar of Proto South African English." English World-Wide 16, no. 1 (1995): 105-33.

Titlestad, Peter J. H. "South Africa's Language Ghosts." English Today 14, no. 2 (1998): 33-9.



The United States

||link to the history of African American Vernacular English (Rebecca Moore Howard's bibliography)||

Brink, Daniel. "Issues in Early American English: Using Evidence From the Journal of Madam Knight." American Journal of Germanic Linguistics and Literatures 6 (1994): 199-210.

Camboni, Marina. "The Voice of Columbia: Aspects of the Debate Over the English and/or American Language, 1743-1800." Revue Française D'Études Americaines 12 (1987): 107-18.

Cmiel, Kenneth. Democratic Eloquence. The Fight Over Popular Speech in Nineteenth-Century America. Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: U of California Press, 1990.

Early chapters touch on 18th century.

Daiches, David. "John Witherspoon, James Wilson and the Influence of Scottish Rhetoric on America." Eighteenth-Century Life 15 (1991): 163-80.

D'Eloia, Sarah G. "Black English: Its History and Usage in the United States." Journal of English Linguistics 7 (1973): 87-106.

Dillard, J.L. Black English: Its History and Usage in the United States. New York: Random House, 1972.

Chapters on the structure and history of AAVE; Chinese, Indian, and Black pidgin Englishes; differences between dialects of the North and the South.

The Emergence of Black English: Text and Commentary. Edited by Guy Bailey, Natalie Maynor and Patricia Cukor-Avila. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1991.

The English History of African American English. Edited by Shana Poplack. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000.

Focus on the USA. Varieties of English Around the World, ed. Edgar Schneider, no. 16. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins, 1996.

Gomez-Calderon, Maria Jose. "The Study of Old English in America (1776-1850): National Uses of the Saxon Past." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 97 (1998): 322-36.

Görlach, Manfred. "Colonial Lag? The Alleged Conservative Character of American English and Other "Colonial" Varieties." English World-Wide 8 (1987): 41-60.

Gundaker, Grey. Signs of Diaspora, Diaspora of Signs. New York & Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998.

Chapter 5 ("Narratives of literacy, acquisition, and use", discusses Black English in the 18th century. Gorgeous illustrations.

Gustafson, Thomas. Representative Words: Politics, Literature, and the American Language, 1776-1865. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge UP, 1992.

Hauer, Stanley. "Thomas Jefferson and the Anglo-Saxon Language." PMLA 98, no. 5 (1983): 879-98.

Hogan, Michael and glen Williams. "Defining "the Enemy" in Revolutionary America: From the Rhetoric of Protest to the Rhetoric of War." Southern Communication Journal 61 (1996): 277-88.

Kamensky, Jane. Governing the Tongue: The Politics of Speech in Early New England. New York: Oxford UP, 1997.

Kyto, Merja. "On the Use of Modal Auxiliaries Indicating Possibility in Early American English." In Historical development of auxiliaries, eds. Martin Harris and Paolo Ramat. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1987.


________. Variation and Diachrony, with Early American English in Focus. Studies on Can/May and Shall/Will. Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang, 1991.

Leap, William. American Indian English. Salt Lake City: U of Utah Press, 1993.

See part 3, "History and functions".

Lederer, Richard. "Colonial American English - Supplement." Verbatim: The Language Quarterly 18 (1992): 15-8.

Looby, Christopher. Voicing America: Language, Literary Form, and the Origins of the United States. Chicago and London: Chicago UP, 1996.

Marckwardt, Albert. American English. 2nd ed. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Montgomery, Michael. "Exploring the Roots of Appalachian English." English World-Wide 10 (1989): 227-78.

________. "A Tale of Two Georges: The Language of Irish Indian Traders in Colonial North America." In Focus on Ireland, ed. Jeffrey Kallen. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1997.

Pelli, Mario. Verb-Particle Constructions in American English: A Study Based on American Plays From the End of the 18th Century to the Present. Bern: Francke, 1976.

Penzl, Herbert. "18th Century American English According to Noah Webster." Dictionaries 12 (1990): 15-25.

Pitcher, E.W. "Long Knives (Big Knives) and Hatchet Metaphors in Eighteenth-Century America." Notes and Queries 39 (1992): 70-1.

Poplack, S. and S. Tagliamonte. "African American English in the Diapora: The Case of Old-Line Nova Scotians." Language Variation and Change 3, no. 3 (1991).


________. "There's No Tense Like the Present: Verbal -S Inflection in Early Black English." Language Variation and Change 1, no. 1 (47-84).

Rickford, J.R. "The Creole Origins of African-American Vernacular English. Evidence From Copula Absence." In African-American English: structure, history, and use, eds. S. Mufwene, J.R. Rickford, G. Bailey and J. Baugh, 154-200. London: Routledg e, 1998.

________. "Prior Creolization of African-American Vernacular English? Sociohistorical and Textual Evidence From the 17th and 18th Centuries." Journal of Sociolinguistics 1, no. 3 (1997).

Rickford, John R. African American Vernacular English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.

Schneider, Edgar. "On the History of Black English in the USA: Some New Evidence." English World-Wide 3 (1982): 18-46.

Simpson, David. The Politics of American English, 1776-1850. New York and Oxford: Oxford UP, 1986.

Winford, D. "On the Origins of African-American Vernacular English -- a Creolist Perspective, Part II: Linguistic Features." Diachronica 15, no. 1 (1998): 99-154.

________. "On the Origins of African American Vernacular English - a Creolist Perspective. Part I: The Sociohistorical Background." Diachronica 14, no. 2 (1997): 305-44.